“Green, blue and circular” v. “black” economic system for the Mediterranean?

“Heading towards a Greener Mediterranean” is the promotional slogan of the kick-off assembly for the launch of the INTERREG EURO-MED 2021-2027 program, to be held in Lisbon, on the twond of December 2021. https://interreg-med.eu/index.php?id=13352&L=0

“Green, blue and circular” are the primary pillars of the Economic Strategy of the EU for the present decade, taking part in a serious position within the implementation of the European Green Deal.

Blue Economy refers to marine-based or marine-related actions, both in established sectors, resembling marine living sources, marine non-living sources (fossil fuels) and so forth., or in rising and revolutionary sectors, resembling new sorts of marine renewable power (i.e. ocean power), blue bio-economy and biotechnology, marine minerals, desalination and so forth.

In its new approach, the European Commission abandons the “Blue Growth” goal, utilized throughout the earlier monetary interval (2014-2020), in favor of the “sustainable blue economy” idea. Economy and setting must be thought-about as a complete, whereas all financial actions within the sea ought to scale back their environmental impacts.

https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/0b0c5bfd-c737-11eb-a925-01aa75ed71a1

The EURO-MED program will finance, with a funds of 281M € in complete (pending last approval), actions related to the rising and revolutionary sectors. These actions maintain certainly a big potential for the long run improvement of coastal and insular communities.

All different EU monetary devices for the brand new monetary interval regarding the similar space, resembling ADRION (EUSAIR macro regional technique), Next-MED (European Neighborhood Policy) and INTERREG bilateral applications (Italy-France, Greece-Italy, Greece-Albania and so forth.), will in all probability observe this similar orientation.

The Plan Bleu report (2020), describes with crystal clear phrases the alarming scenario on the State of the Environment and Development within the Mediterranean. The report states amongst different that susceptible sources are below strain, that the basin is a hotspot of local weather change, and that its coastal zone concentrates and accumulates pressures and suffers from environmental degradation. https://planbleu.org/en/soed-2020-state-of-environment-and-development-in-mediterranean/

When talking of a semi-closed sea, all coastal States ought to share frequent values and apply the identical insurance policies so as to achieve frequent targets. It appears this isn’t the case within the Mediterranean, the place financial pursuits and political rivalries, together with armed conflicts territorial disputes and financial weaknesses, restrict alternatives for cooperation and customary actions.

The fundamental query is due to this fact to look at if the long run European excessive investments, particularly from the EURO-MED program, will probably be enough to reverse and even affect the precise financial mannequin and realities within the Mediterranean basin.

Our evaluation will give attention to Energy manufacturing, an important however conflictual sector of blue economic system, the place the wrestle between typical and renewable power sources is predicted to be robust.

In its communication on Blue economic system, the European Commission acknowledged that offshore Oil and gasoline sector has been in decline for some years, due, in precept, to the Italian moratorium on offshore oil and gasoline permits.  But is that this assumption legitimate for the Mediterranean offshore oil and gasoline exploitation basically? What about nuclear power, which isn’t thought-about as a marine power useful resource however can have environmental impacts on used water and will deteriorate increasingly the ocean basin?

According to information supplied by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Levant area of the Eastern Mediterranean — which incorporates Syrian coasts — holds a reserve of 1.7 billion barrels of oil and three.5 trillion cubic meters of pure gasoline.

While Egypt pioneered the invention of offshore gasoline with the Abu Qir discipline in 1969, it was the beginning of drilling in deep waters in 2000 that opened a brand new horizon within the Eastern Mediterranean. To date, greater than two thousand billion cubic meters (bcm) of pure gasoline have been found within the Egyptian sector of the Mediterranean Sea. And but, the Eastern Mediterranean stays under- or unexplored and has good prospects for added reserves.

Turkey, Egypt, Greece, Lebanon, Syria, Libya and Israel within the Eastern Mediterranean are pursuing lively insurance policies on this energy-rich area whereas the U.S., Russia, the U.Ok., France and Italy search to take care of their affect within the area as properly.

Actually, after two critical financial and well being crises, the danger of provide safety and the growing oil and gasoline costs, it might be quite uncertain for Governments to disclaim to use the not too long ago found “black gold”, favoring it over different “noble” and environmental-friendly sources. Country producers want the cash, giant petroleum corporations the revenue and Northern European nations power safety, independence from Russian gasoline and steady costs.

The potential position of the Eastern Mediterranean in diversifying Europe’s power sources turns into, due to this fact, vital. The East-Med pipeline challenge would be the imply to switch Mediterranean gasoline to Europe by Israel, Cyprus and Greece.

In these circumstances, it isn’t in any respect shocking that Turkish President Erdogan claims at any time the “Blue homeland”, as the primary aspect of the Turkish overseas coverage.

Quite a few consultants sound the alarm that the deliberate extraction of hydrocarbon deposits within the Eastern Mediterranean current a dramatic danger of irreversible ecological and socio-economic catastrophe on the sea, the productive land areas the place mining is deliberate, but additionally the viability of the nations themselves. Other consultants contemplate that hydrocarbons, and particularly gasoline, are a part of the answer in the direction of the power transition and demand on the truth that efforts for analysis and discovery of latest deposits in addition to their exploitation should be intensified.

International expertise has proven that in an space the place hydrocarbons are mined, accidents and basic degradation are inevitable, regardless of strict environmental situations and prevention measures. It is then apparent that mining actions can not coexist with the so-called blue and inexperienced actions.

Two current typical examples illustrate the unfavorable results of onshore and offshore mining: Basilicata (Italy) and the Gulf of Mexico.

After almost thirty years of mining, Basilicata is now going through a dramatic environmental disaster, rising most cancers charges, a devastated agriculture and degraded tourism. As a consequence, the Italian Government has determined to droop any new software for manufacturing concession by the top of 2021.

In the Gulf of Mexico, the explosion at BP’s oil rig in 2010 spilled 5 million barrels of crude oil into the ocean. It took three months to shut the mining properly at a depth of 1,500 meters and cease the leak. The oil coated 180,000 km2 of sea and coast, from Texas to Alabama, whereas greater than 5,500 tons of poisonous chemical dispersants had been used.

Apart the doubts and worries for the exploitation of oil and gasoline, a collection of issues are expressed for the operate or the development of latest nuclear energy vegetation in several nations across the Mediterranean. There are at present nuclear energy vegetation in Bulgaria, Romania, France, Spain and Slovenia, whereas such items are being deliberate in Turkey, Albania and Northern Macedonia.

Turkey envisages to assemble 4 nuclear reactors with a capability of 1.200MW, the primary in Akuyu, to be constructed by Rosatom, a Russian State-owned Atomic Energy Company.

Rosatom has additionally obtained a allow from the Egyptian Government to assemble a plant within the Dabaa space of ​​MarsaMatrouh, financed by Russia with a mortgage of 25 billion US greenback.

France owns fifty-eight nuclear reactors and about 80% of its power manufacturing is predicated on nuclear power. This share is the best on the earth. France has one of many lowest electrical energy costs within the European Union and the bottom carbon dioxide emissions within the EU.

Nuclear power is due to this fact coming again once more as a method of transition to an economic system with zero carbon footprint, and regardless of unhealthy experiences and accidents, many nations, as for instance the UK and Japan, are additionally adopting this resolution.

Ten Member States, (the Netherlands, Romania, the Czech Republic, Finland, Slovakia, Croatia, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Poland and Hungary) led by France contemplate that pure gasoline and nuclear power can be utilized within the battle in opposition to local weather change and requested to be acknowledged as such, within the so-called “taxonomy”.  On the opposite aspect, Germany – which is locking its nuclear vegetation -, Austria, Luxembourg and different nations are strongly resisting to that coverage. Some different nations contemplate that gasoline must be solely a short lived resolution, a bridge in the direction of the transition to inexperienced power, as it’s much less polluting than oil and though it nonetheless is a fossil gas.

According to present forecasts, in lower than a decade the planet may have decisively shifted from fossil fuels to RES and mild useful resource administration, with the primary drastic anticipated change is the expertise of vehicles that at present eat greater than half the world’s gas. In truth, a consequent discount within the value of oil is predicted.

It stays to see if this forecast will probably be legitimate for the Mediterranean basin as properly, provided that power will probably be produced in parallel by typical sources (fossil gas and nuclear) and by rising power renewables.

At the top of the last decade, we are going to know if the European cash was used to avoid wasting the ocean or was misplaced within the sea.

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