Tanzanian writer Abdulrazak Gurnah is the newest recipient of a Nobel Prize. On Thursday, the Swedish Academy introduced Gurnah the winner of the highest prize in literature for his “uncompromising and compassionate penetration of the effects of colonialism and the fate of the refugee in the gulf between cultures and continents”.
The 2021 Nobel season continues, with the announcement of the much-anticipated peace prize going to occur on Friday, adopted by the economics prize on Monday.
So far, eight males have received this yr’s prestigious prizes in medication, physics, chemistry and literature.
Six award classes
The Nobel Prize recognises the very best achievement in medication, physics, chemistry, literature, peace and financial sciences. The Nobel Prize winners, also known as Nobel laureates, may be people, teams or organisations.
The Nobel Prize has been working since 1901, 5 years after the dying of Alfred Nobel, a Swedish chemist and inventor of dynamite. Nobel left one of many world’s largest non-public fortunes to fund the awards.
In addition to the celebrated title, winners obtain an 18-carat gold medal in addition to a financial prize which elevated from roughly $1m in 2020 to $1.1m this yr.
Five of the awards are introduced from varied institutes and academies throughout Sweden whereas the Nobel Peace Prize is introduced from the Norwegian Nobel Institute in Oslo, the capital of Norway.
Notable winners 1901-2020
Between 1901 and 2020, 603 Nobel Prizes have been awarded to 962 laureates.
Marie Curie, the Polish-French physicist, was the primary particular person to win two Nobel Prizes – in 1903 and 1911 – for her work within the development in physics and chemistry.
In 2014, at 17 years, Malala Yousefzai grew to become the youngest particular person to obtain a Nobel Prize. She shared the peace prize with Kailash Satyarthi for his or her “struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education”.
Some different notable Nobel laureates embody Albert Einstein (1921, physics), Martin Luther King Jr (1964, peace) and Nelson Mandela (1993, peace).
Winners by continent
While the Nobel Prize is a world award, simply greater than half of all prize winners are from Europe. The United States has the very best variety of Nobel laureates, at 281, as of 2020.
After Europe and North America, Asia has the third-highest variety of Nobel laureates at 72, adopted by Africa (27), Oceania (15), and South America (11).
Huge gender hole
More than 90 p.c of Nobel Prize winners have been males. In 2020, 4 out of the 11 Nobel laureates have been girls.
Speaking to Al Jazeera, Lars Brink, the previous chairman of the Nobel Committee for Physics, stated there’s a time lag between when the scientists carried out their discoveries and when the Nobel Prizes are awarded.
In the case of physics, he stated, most of the Nobel laureates’ discoveries have been from the 1960s by to the 1980s, when there have been only a few feminine professors. “It’s going to be much better,” he added, however extra time is required.
On Monday, US scientists David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian received the Nobel Prize in medication for his or her discoveries on nerve receptors for temperature and contact.
The subsequent day, US-Japanese scientist Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann of Germany and Giorgio Parisi of Italy received the physics prize for local weather fashions and the understanding of bodily methods.
On Wednesday, scientists Benjamin List and David WC MacMillan have been awarded the highest prize in chemistry for creating a brand new kind of catalyst to speed up chemical reactions.
And on Thursday, Gurnah received the prize in literature for his work on the results of colonialism and refugees.